The solar system planets are the many planets that orbit the sun. These can be broken down into three groups: the inner planets, the outer planets, and the dwarf planets. For example, Mercury and Venus, the closest planets to the sun, are known as the inner planets, while Neptune and Uranus, the outermost planets, are the outer planets. Some planets are also sometimes called sub-planets.
The Moon, also known as Luna, is a natural satellite of our Earth. It is the
the fifth largest moon in the solar system and the second densest moon in terms of density after Jupiter’s moon Io.
Structure of Moon
The diameter of the moon is 3.793×107 km2. The moon is mainly composed of 4•45% silica SiO2 and 9•14% alumina Al2O3 and in addition, iron dioxide, magnesium, and sodium dioxide are also present in large quantities.
The Moon’s inner core, which is about 240 km, is overlain by 500 km of the molten mantle, while the crust is about 50 km.
History of Moon
There are many theories about how the moon came into existence, but according to the most widely believed theory, a planet called Theia ejected from our earth about 51.4 billion years ago, which changed almost half of the earth’s crust to magma. And the crust of the crust began to rotate around the earth in a ring, which gradually took the form of a moon.
Axis of Moon
The distance between the Earth and the Moon is 384,402 km. The Moon completes one cycle around the Earth in twenty-nine and a half days.
Atmosphere of Moon
The pressure on the surface of the moon is 3 × 10−15 atm, as there is no atmosphere. Its atmosphere contains helium, nitrogen, argon, mercury, radon, and polonium. In addition, water vapor will also be found. Is
Moon’s magnetic field is one hundred thousand times weaker than Earth’s
Research and Exploration of Moon
The Soviet Luna 2 was the first to hit the moon in May 1959. After that, Luna 9 orbited the moon in May 1966. In July 1969, humans first set foot on the moon.
Mars and Its Moons
The two moons of Mars are Phobos and Deimos. The area of Phobos is 22 km and Deimos is 12 km. They were both discovered by Asaph Hall in 1877. These two moons have different orbits, Phobos rises in the west and sets in the east and rises again 11 hours later, while Deimos rises in the east and sets 30 hours later. Mars’ gravity is creating tidal forces that are constantly pulling Phobos apart. After about 50 million years, Mars will break Phobos into pieces.
While Deimos is continuously moving away from Mars and after several million years it will completely leave the Orbit of Mars.
It is said that these moons were stray meteorites captured by Mars, but this theory has not yet been proven.
Apart from this, there may be other moons of Mars that will be 50 to 100 meters
View of Mars.
Mars has a visual magnitude of +0.71, making it the second brightest object after Venus. It is best viewed from July to September. Mars is closest to Earth at 54 to 103 million kilometers. On July 27, 2018, it reached 58 million kilometers. On August 27, 2003, it came to its closest approach in 60,000 years at −2.88 McBio.
Research on Mars.
A dozen spacecraft have been sent to Mars so far, of which 6 are currently in orbit.
The first space lab named Curiosity was launched on November 6, 2011, and arrived on August 26, 2012.
In September 2014, India launched the Mars Orbiter Mission, which will take geographic images of Mars.
The European Space Agency’s Schiaparelli lander reached Mars’ orbit on March 14, 2016, and then ejected from the surface.
NASA launched MAVEN in May 2019
In addition, the United Arab Emirates launched Mars Hope in May 2020, which reached the orbit of Mars in May 2021. Apart from this, SpaceX has prepared a plan to send humans to Mars in 2024.
Introduction: The asteroid belt is the region between Jupiter and Mars that contains many irregular asteroids or bodies. It is also called the main asteroid belt because most of the asteroids are located in this region.
About half the mass of the asteroid belt consists of four large asteroids, Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, and Hygiea.
While its total mass is 18% that of the Moon, 22% that of Pluto, and 50% that of its moon Chiron.
Ceres is the largest asteroid with a diameter of 950 km, which makes it a dwarf planet, while the other three are less than 600 km.
Asteroids are classified into three main types of carbonaceous, the one with the highest carbon content is also called C-type.
The second silicate containing silicon is also called S-type. The third metal-rich type is called M-type.
The Reason For Being
The asteroid belt was formed from the remnants of the solar nebula from which the rest of the planets were formed, but the main reason for not being able to form a planet is attributed to the gravity of Jupiter. 99% of the asteroid belt was destroyed by collisions, leaving less than 1% of what we see today.
The asteroid belt is not as dense as it appears, its center is mostly empty, and the center is far away, but some are close. More than 200 asteroids are larger than 100 km, while 7 million to 1 million are smaller than 1 km.
The total mass of the asteroid belt is 2.39×1021 kg, which is only 3% of the mass of the Moon.
Read Also: Signs of life on Europa
Asteroid orbits are neither elliptical nor ecliptic, but partly ecliptic and partly elliptical.
Some asteroids partially orbit the Sun, but Jupiter’s powerful gravity disrupts their orbits.
Hit of Asteroid
Asteroids collide frequently on a cosmic scale. That is, meteorites 10 kilometers or so in size hit me about every 10 million years. When they collide, they break into innumerable fragments, some of which are as small as micrometers.
About 10% of the asteroid belt consists of dust.
Asteroid collisions also create meteoroids. So far, 50,000 meteoroids have passed the Earth. While 99% are inside the asteroid belt.
- It is divided into three parts
- The innermost belt. It is 2 astronomical units away from 78•1. Also called the Hungaria family, about 52 asteroids have been discovered here, the most notable being Mi 434 Hungaria.
- Innerbelt. It is at a distance of 25•2 to 5•2 astronomical units. It is also called the Phocaea family. It consists mostly of S-type asteroids.
- Outer belt. Also called the Cybele group. It is 2•3 to 2•4 astronomical units away. Most asteroids are within 1 km or so. Most asteroids are here.
The first space probe to pass through the asteroid belt was Pioneer 10 on July 16, 1972.
Apart from this, Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini, and many other space probes have passed through here and taken various pictures, and discovered new asteroids.